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Soil Mechanics Fundamentals

By Isao Ishibashi, Hemanta Hazarika

CRC Press – 2010 – 342 pages

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    While many introductory texts on soil mechanics are available, most are either lacking in their explanations of soil behavior or provide far too much information without cogent organization. More significantly, few of those texts go beyond memorization of equations and numbers to provide a practical understanding of why and how soil mechanics work.

    Based on the authors’ more than 25 years of teaching soil mechanics to engineering students, Soil Mechanics Fundamentals presents a comprehensive introduction to soil mechanics, with emphasis on the engineering significance of what soil is, how it behaves, and why it behaves that way. Concise, yet thorough, the text is organized incrementally, with earlier sections serving as the foundation for more advanced topics. Explaining the varied behavior of soils through mathematics, physics and chemistry, the text covers:

    • Engineering behavior of clays
    • Unified and AASHTO soil classification systems
    • Compaction techniques, water flow and effective stress
    • Stress increments in soil mass and settlement problems
    • Mohr’s Circle application to soil mechanics and shear strength
    • Lateral earth pressure and bearing capacity theories

    Each chapter is accompanied by example and practicing problems that encourage readers to apply learned concepts to applications with a full understanding of soil behavior fundamentals. With this text, engineering professionals as well as students can confidently determine logical and innovative solutions to challenging situations.



    The Authors

    1. Introduction

    Soil Mechanics and Related Fields

    Dr. Karl von Terzaghi

    Uniqueness of Soils

    Approaches to Soil Mechanics Problems

    Examples of Soil Mechanics Problems

    Organization of Contents


    2. Physical Properties of Soils


    Origin of Soils

    Soil Particle Shapes

    Definitions of Terms with Three-Phase Diagram

    Particle Size and Gradation




    3. Clays and Their Behavior


    Clay Minerals

    Clay Shapes and Surface Areas

    Surface Charge of Clay Particles

    Clay–Water System.

    Interaction of Clay Particles.

    Clay Structures

    Atterberg Limits and Indices


    Swelling and Shrinkage of Clays

    Sensitivity and Quick Clay

    Clay versus Sand



    Problems4. Soil Classification


    Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

    AASHTO Classification System




    5. Compaction


    Relative Density

    Laboratory Compaction Test

    Specification of Compaction in the Field

    Field Compaction Methods

    Field Density Determinations

    California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test




    6. Flow of Water through Soils


    Hydraulic Heads and Water Flow

    Darcy’s Equation

    Coefficient of Permeability

    Laboratory Determination of Coefficient of Permeability

    Field Determination of Coefficient of Permeability

    Flow Net

    Boundary Water Pressures




    7. Effective Stress


    Total Stress versus Effective Stress

    Effective Stress Computations in Soil Mass

    Effective Stress Change due to Water Table Change

    Capillary Rise and Effective Stress

    Effective Stress with Water Flow

    Quicksand (Sand Boiling)

    Heave of Clay due to Excavation




    8. Stress Increments in Soil Mass


    2:1 Approximate Slope Method

    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Point Load

    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Line Load

    Vertical Stress Increment due to a Strip Load

    Vertical Stress Increment under a Circular Footing

    Vertical Stress Increment under an Embankment Load

    Vertical Stress Increment under Corner of Rectangular Footing

    Vertical Stress Increment under Irregularly Shaped Footing




    9. Settlements


    Elastic Settlements

    Primary Consolidation Settlement

    One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation Model

    Terzaghi’s Consolidation Theory

    Laboratory Consolidation Test

    Determination of Cv

    e-log σ Curve Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Soils

    Final Consolidation Settlement for Thin Clay Layer

    Consolidation Settlement for Multilayers or a Thick Clay Layer

    Summary of Primary Consolidation Computations

    Secondary Compression

    Allowable Settlement

    Ground Improving Techniques Against Consolidation Settlement




    10. Mohr’s Circle in Soil Mechanics


    Concept of Mohr’s Circle

    Stress Transformation

    Mohr’s Circle Construction

    Sign Convention of Shear Stress

    Pole (Origin of Planes) of Mohr’s Circle

    Summary of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole

    Examples of Usage of Mohr’s Circle and Pole in Soil Mechanics




    11. Shear Strength of Soils


    Failure Criteria

    Direct Shear Test

    Unconfined Compression Test

    Triaxial Compression Test

    Other Shear Test Devices

    Summary of Strength Parameters for Saturated Clays

    Applications of Strength Parameters from CD, CU, and UU Tests to In Situ Cases

    Strength Parameters for Granular Soils

    Direction of Failure Planes in Sheared Specimen




    12. Lateral Earth Pressure


    At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures

    At-Rest Earth Pressure

    Rankine’s Lateral Earth Pressure Theory

    Coulomb’s Earth Pressure

    Lateral Earth Pressure due to Surcharge Load

    Coulomb, Rankine, or Other Pressures?




    13. Bearing Capacity


    Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory

    Generalized Bearing Capacity Equation

    Correction due to Water Table Elevation

    Gross versus Net Bearing Capacity

    Factor of Safety on Bearing Capacity




    Numerical Answers to Selected Problems

    Subject Index

    Author Index

    Unit Conversion Table

    Author Bio

    Dr. Isao Ishibashi is a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He was born in Japan, where he obtained his bachelor and master degrees from Nagoya University. After earning his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in Seattle, he served as a faculty member at the University of Washington and Cornell University, before moving to Old Dominion in 1986. Professor Ishibashi has been involved in research in the areas of geotechnical and earthquake engineering, specifically soil liquefaction, dynamic soil properties, static and dynamic earth pressures as well as seismic water pressure, granular mechanics, slope stability, and used tire application to embankment, etc. He is the author or co-author of over 100 published technical papers that have appeared in journals and proceedings in these areas. He is a member of the ASCE, ISSMFE, ASTM, EERI, and JGS.

    Dr. Hemanta Hazarika is professor in the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Born in India, he obtained his bachelor of technology degree in Civil Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras, India and his Ph. D. in Geotechnical Engineering from Nagoya University in Japan. Before moving to his present position, he worked as a practicing engineer for a few years and spent several years teaching and conducting research in academia, as well as with public sector research institutes in Japan. Professor Hazarika’s research activities include soil-structure interaction, seismic stability of soil-structure, ground improvement geosystem, applications involving recycled waste and lightweight geomaterials, stability of cut slopes, and landslides and protection against them. He has published more than 100 technical papers in international journals and for international conferences and symposia proceedings, several of which have appeared as contributed chapters in books. He is also credited with serving as the editor of two books in his research fields. He is a member of ASCE, ISSMGE, IACMAG, IGS, JSCE, and JGS.

    Related Subjects

    1. Soil Science

    Name: Soil Mechanics Fundamentals (eBook)CRC Press 
    Description: By Isao Ishibashi, Hemanta Hazarika. While many introductory texts on soil mechanics are available, most are either lacking in their explanations of soil behavior or provide far too much information without cogent organization. More significantly, few of those texts go beyond memorization...
    Categories: Soil Science